دوره های تخصصی آکادمی ویرا
دوره های تخصصی لینوکس

Topic 101: System Architecture

101.1 Determine and configure hardware settings

Description: Candidates should be able to determine and configure fundamental system hardware

Key Knowledge Areas:

Enable and disable integrated peripherals.
Differentiate between the various types of mass storage devices.
Determine hardware resources for devices.
Tools and utilities to list various hardware information (e.g. lsusb, lspci, etc.).
Tools and utilities to manipulate USB devices.
Conceptual understanding of sysfs, udev and dbus.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/sys/
/proc/
/dev/
modprobe
lsmod
lspci
Description: Candidates should be able to guide the system through the booting process.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Provide common commands to the boot loader and options to the kernel at boot time.
Demonstrate knowledge of the boot sequence from BIOS/UEFI to boot completion.
Understanding of SysVinit and systemd.
Awareness of Upstart.
Check boot events in the log files.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
dmesg
journalctl
BIOS
UEFI
bootloader
kernel
initramfs
init
SysVinit
systemd

 

101.3 Change runlevels / boot targets and shutdown or reboot system

Description: Candidates should be able to manage the SysVinit runlevel or systemd boot target of the system. This objective includes changing to single user mode, shutdown or rebooting the system. Candidates should be able to alert users before switching runlevels / boot targets and properly terminate processes. This objective also includes setting the default SysVinit runlevel or systemd boot target. It also includes awareness of Upstart as an alternative to SysVinit or systemd.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Set the default runlevel or boot target.
Change between runlevels / boot targets including single user mode.
Shutdown and reboot from the command line.
Alert users before switching runlevels / boot targets or other major system events.
Properly terminate processes.
Awareness of acpid.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/inittab
shutdown
init
/etc/init.d/
telinit
systemd
systemctl
/etc/systemd/
/usr/lib/systemd/
wall

Topic 102: Linux Installation and Package Management

102.1 Design hard disk layout

Description: Candidates should be able to design a disk partitioning scheme for a Linux system.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Allocate filesystems and swap space to separate partitions or disks.
Tailor the design to the intended use of the system.
Ensure the /boot partition conforms to the hardware architecture requirements for booting.
Knowledge of basic features of LVM.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/ (root) filesystem
/var filesystem
/home filesystem
/boot filesystem
EFI System Partition (ESP)
swap space
mount points
partitions

102.2 Install a boot manager

Description: Candidates should be able to select, install and configure a boot manager.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Providing alternative boot locations and backup boot options.
Install and configure a boot loader such as GRUB Legacy.
Perform basic configuration changes for GRUB 2.
Interact with the boot loader.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
menu.lst, grub.cfg and grub.conf
grub-install
grub-mkconfig
MBR

102.3 Manage shared libraries

 

Description: Candidates should be able to determine the shared libraries that executable programs depend on and install them when necessary.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Identify shared libraries.
Identify the typical locations of system libraries.
Load shared libraries.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
ldd
ldconfig
/etc/ld.so.conf
LD_LIBRARY_PATH

 

102.4 Use Debian package management

Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using the Debian package tools.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Install, upgrade and uninstall Debian binary packages.
Find packages containing specific files or libraries which may or may not be installed.
Obtain package information like version, content, dependencies, package integrity and installation status (whether or not the package is installed).
Awareness of apt.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/apt/sources.list
dpkg
dpkg-reconfigure
apt-get
apt-cache

 

102.5 Use RPM and YUM package management

Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using RPM, YUM and Zypper.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Install, re-install, upgrade and remove packages using RPM, YUM and Zypper.
Obtain information on RPM packages such as version, status, dependencies, integrity and signatures.
Determine what files a package provides, as well as find which package a specific file comes from.
Awareness of dnf.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
rpm
rpm2cpio
/etc/yum.conf
/etc/yum.repos.d/
yum
zypper

102.6 Linux as a virtualization guest

Description: Candidates should understand the implications of virtualization and cloud computing on a Linux guest system.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Understand the general concept of virtual machines and containers.
Understand common elements virtual machines in an IaaS cloud, such as computing instances, block storage and networking.
Understand unique properties of a Linux system which have to changed when a system is cloned or used as a template.
Understand how system images are used to deploy virtual machines, cloud instances and containers.
Understand Linux extensions which integrate Linux with a virtualization product.
Awareness of cloud-init.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
Virtual machine
Linux container
Application container
Guest drivers
SSH host keys
D-Bus machine id

Topic 103: GNU and Unix Commands

103.1 Work on the command line

Description: Candidates should be able to interact with shells and commands using the command line. The objective assumes the Bash shell.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Use single shell commands and one line command sequences to perform basic tasks on the command line.
Use and modify the shell environment including defining, referencing and exporting environment variables.
Use and edit command history.
Invoke commands inside and outside the defined path.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
bash
echo
env
export
pwd
set
unset
type
which
man
uname
history
.bash_history
Quoting

103.2 Process text streams using filters

Description: Candidates should be able to apply filters to text streams.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Send text files and output streams through text utility filters to modify the output using standard UNIX commands found in the GNU textutils package.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
bzcat
cat
cut
head
less
md5sum
nl
od
paste
sed
sha256sum
sha512sum
sort
split
tail
tr
uniq
wc
xzcat
zcat

 

103.3 Perform basic file management

Description: Candidates should be able to use the basic Linux commands to manage files and directories.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Copy, move and remove files and directories individually.
Copy multiple files and directories recursively.
Remove files and directories recursively.
Use simple and advanced wildcard specifications in commands.
Using find to locate and act on files based on type, size, or time.
Usage of tar, cpio and dd.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
cp
find
mkdir
mv
ls
rm
rmdir
touch
tar
cpio
dd
file
gzip
gunzip
bzip2
bunzip2
xz
unxz
file globbing

 

103.4 Use streams, pipes and redirects

Description: Candidates should be able to redirect streams and connect them in order to efficiently process textual data. Tasks include redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error, piping the output of one command to the input of another command, using the output of one command as arguments to another command and sending output to both stdout and a file.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error.
Pipe the output of one command to the input of another command.
Use the output of one command as arguments to another command.
Send output to both stdout and a file.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
tee
xargs

 

103.5 Create, monitor and kill processes

Description: Candidates should be able to perform basic process management.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Run jobs in the foreground and background.
Signal a program to continue running after logout.
Monitor active processes.
Select and sort processes for display.
Send signals to processes.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
&
bg
fg
jobs
kill
nohup
ps
top
free
uptime
pgrep
pkill
killall
watch
screen
tmux

103.6 Modify process execution priorities

Description: Candidates should should be able to manage process execution priorities.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Know the default priority of a job that is created.
Run a program with higher or lower priority than the default.
Change the priority of a running process.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
nice
ps
renice
top

 

103.7 Search text files using regular expressions

Description: Candidates should be able to manipulate files and text data using regular expressions. This objective includes creating simple regular expressions containing several notational elements as well as understanding the differences between basic and extended regular expressions. It also includes using regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Create simple regular expressions containing several notational elements.
Understand the differences between basic and extended regular expressions.
Understand the concepts of special characters, character classes, quantifiers and anchors.
Use regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content.
Use regular expressions to delete, change and substitute text.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
grep
egrep
fgrep
sed
regex(7)

 

103.8 Basic file editing

Description: Candidates should be able to edit text files using vi. This objective includes vi navigation, vi modes, inserting, editing, deleting, copying and finding text. It also includes awareness of other common editors and setting the default editor.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Navigate a document using vi.
Understand and use vi modes.
Insert, edit, delete, copy and find text in vi.
Awareness of Emacs, nano and vim.
Configure the standard editor.
Terms and Utilities:
vi
/, ?
h,j,k,l
i, o, a
d, p, y, dd, yy
ZZ, :w!, :q!
EDITOR

Topic 104: Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

104.1 Create partitions and filesystems

Description: Candidates should be able to configure disk partitions and then create filesystems on media such as hard disks. This includes the handling of swap partitions.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Manage MBR and GPT partition tables
Use various mkfs commands to create various filesystems such as:
ext2/ext3/ext4
XFS
VFAT
exFAT
Basic feature knowledge of Btrfs, including multi-device filesystems, compression and subvolumes.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
fdisk
gdisk
parted
mkfs
mkswap

104.2 Maintain the integrity of filesystems

Description: Candidates should be able to maintain a standard filesystem, as well as the extra data associated with a journaling filesystem.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Verify the integrity of filesystems.
Monitor free space and inodes.
Repair simple filesystem problems.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
du
df
fsck
e2fsck
mke2fs
tune2fs
xfs_repair
xfs_fsr
xfs_db

104.3 Control mounting and unmounting of filesystems

Description: Candidates should be able to configure the mounting of a filesystem.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Manually mount and unmount filesystems.
Configure filesystem mounting on bootup.
Configure user mountable removable filesystems.
Use of labels and UUIDs for identifying and mounting file systems.
Awareness of systemd mount units.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/fstab
/media/
mount
umount
blkid
lsblk
104.4 Removed

104.5 Manage file permissions and ownership

Description: Candidates should be able to control file access through the proper use of permissions and ownerships.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Manage access permissions on regular and special files as well as directories.
Use access modes such as suid, sgid and the sticky bit to maintain security.
Know how to change the file creation mask.
Use the group field to grant file access to group members.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
chmod
umask
chown
chgrp

104.6 Create and change hard and symbolic links

Description: Candidates should be able to create and manage hard and symbolic links to a file.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Create links.
Identify hard and/or soft links.
Copying versus linking files.
Use links to support system administration tasks.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
ln
ls

104.7 Find system files and place files in the correct location

Description: Candidates should be thoroughly familiar with the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), including typical file locations and directory classifications.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Understand the correct locations of files under the FHS.
Find files and commands on a Linux system.
Know the location and purpose of important file and directories as defined in the FHS.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
find
locate
updatedb
whereis
which
type
/etc/updatedb.conf

Topic 105: Shells and Shell Scripting

105.1 Customize and use the shell environment

Description: Candidates should be able to customize shell environments to meet users’ needs. Candidates should be able to modify global and user profiles.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Set environment variables (e.g. PATH) at login or when spawning a new shell.
Write Bash functions for frequently used sequences of commands.
Maintain skeleton directories for new user accounts.
Set command search path with the proper directory.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
.
source
/etc/bash.bashrc
/etc/profile
env
export
set
unset
~/.bash_profile
~/.bash_login
~/.profile
~/.bashrc
~/.bash_logout
function
alias

105.2 Customize or write simple scripts

Description: Candidates should be able to customize existing scripts, or write simple new Bash scripts.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Use standard sh syntax (loops, tests).
Use command substitution.
Test return values for success or failure or other information provided by a command.
Execute chained commands.
Perform conditional mailing to the superuser.
Correctly select the script interpreter through the shebang (#!) line.
Manage the location, ownership, execution and suid-rights of scripts.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
for
while
test
if
read
seq
exec
||
&&

Topic 106: User Interfaces and Desktops

106.1 Install and configure X11

Description: Candidates should be able to install and configure X11.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Understanding of the X11 architecture.
Basic understanding and knowledge of the X Window configuration file.
Overwrite specific aspects of Xorg configuration, such as keyboard layout.
Understand the components of desktop environments, such as display managers and window managers.
Manage access to the X server and display applications on remote X servers.
Awareness of Wayland.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/X11/xorg.conf
/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/
~/.xsession-errors
xhost
xauth
DISPLAY
X

106.2 Graphical Desktops

Description: Candidates should be aware of major Linux desktops. Furthermore, candidates should be aware of protocols used to access remote desktop sessions.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Awareness of major desktop environments
Awareness of protocols to access remote desktop sessions
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
KDE
Gnome
Xfce
X11
XDMCP
VNC
Spice
RDP

106.3 Accessibility

Description: Demonstrate knowledge and awareness of accessibility technologies.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Basic knowledge of visual settings and themes.
Basic knowledge of assistive technology.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
High Contrast/Large Print Desktop Themes.
Screen Reader.
Braille Display.
Screen Magnifier.
On-Screen Keyboard.
Sticky/Repeat keys.
Slow/Bounce/Toggle keys.
Mouse keys.
Gestures.
Voice recognition.

Topic 107: Administrative Tasks

107.1 Manage user and group accounts and related system files

Description: Candidates should be able to add, remove, suspend and change user accounts.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Add, modify and remove users and groups.
Manage user/group info in password/group databases.
Create and manage special purpose and limited accounts.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/group
/etc/skel/
chage
getent
groupadd
groupdel
groupmod
passwd
useradd
userdel
usermod

107.2 Automate system administration tasks by scheduling jobs

Description: Candidates should be able to use cron and systemd timers to run jobs at regular intervals and to use at to run jobs at a specific time.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Manage cron and at jobs.
Configure user access to cron and at services.
Understand systemd timer units.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/cron.{d,daily,hourly,monthly,weekly}/
/etc/at.deny
/etc/at.allow
/etc/crontab
/etc/cron.allow
/etc/cron.deny
/var/spool/cron/
crontab
at
atq
atrm
systemctl
systemd-run

107.3 Localisation and internationalisation

Description: Candidates should be able to localize a system in a different language than English. As well, an understanding of why LANG=C is useful when scripting.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Configure locale settings and environment variables.
Configure timezone settings and environment variables.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/timezone
/etc/localtime
/usr/share/zoneinfo/
LC_*
LC_ALL
LANG
TZ
/usr/bin/locale
tzselect
timedatectl
date
iconv
UTF-8
ISO-8859
ASCII
Unicode

Topic 108: Essential System Services

108.1 Maintain system time

Description: Candidates should be able to properly maintain the system time and synchronize the clock via NTP.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Set the system date and time.
Set the hardware clock to the correct time in UTC.
Configure the correct timezone.
Basic NTP configuration using ntpd and chrony.
Knowledge of using the pool.ntp.org service.
Awareness of the ntpq command.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/usr/share/zoneinfo/
/etc/timezone
/etc/localtime
/etc/ntp.conf
/etc/chrony.conf
date
hwclock
timedatectl
ntpd
ntpdate
chronyc
pool.ntp.org

108.2 System logging

Description: Candidates should be able to configure rsyslog. This objective also includes configuring the logging daemon to send log output to a central log server or accept log output as a central log server. Use of the systemd journal subsystem is covered. Also, awareness of syslog and syslog-ng as alternative logging systems is included.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Basic configuration of rsyslog.
Understanding of standard facilities, priorities and actions.
Query the systemd journal.
Filter systemd journal data by criteria such as date, service or priority.
Configure persistent systemd journal storage and journal size.
Delete old systemd journal data.
Retrieve systemd journal data from a rescue system or file system copy.
Understand interaction of rsyslog with systemd-journald.
Configuration of logrotate.
Awareness of syslog and syslog-ng.
Terms and Utilities:
/etc/rsyslog.conf
/var/log/
logger
logrotate
/etc/logrotate.conf
/etc/logrotate.d/
journalctl
systemd-cat
/etc/systemd/journald.conf
/var/log/journal/

108.3 Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) basics

Description: Candidates should be aware of the commonly available MTA programs and be able to perform basic forward and alias configuration on a client host. Other configuration files are not covered.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Create e-mail aliases.
Configure e-mail forwarding.
Knowledge of commonly available MTA programs (postfix, sendmail, exim) (no configuration).
Terms and Utilities:
~/.forward
sendmail emulation layer commands
newaliases
mail
mailq
postfix
sendmail
exim

108.4 Manage printers and printing

Description: Candidates should be able to manage print queues and user print jobs using CUPS and the LPD compatibility interface.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Basic CUPS configuration (for local and remote printers).
Manage user print queues.
Troubleshoot general printing problems.
Add and remove jobs from configured printer queues.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities
/etc/cups/
lpd legacy interface (lpr, lprm, lpq)

Topic 109: Networking Fundamentals

109.1 Fundamentals of internet protocols

Description: Candidates should demonstrate a proper understanding of TCP/IP network fundamentals.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Demonstrate an understanding of network masks and CIDR notation.
Knowledge of the differences between private and public “dotted quad” IP addresses.
Knowledge about common TCP and UDP ports and services (20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, 123, 139, 143, 161, 162, 389, 443, 465, 514, 636, 993, 995).
Knowledge about the differences and major features of UDP, TCP and ICMP.
Knowledge of the major differences between IPv4 and IPv6.
Knowledge of the basic features of IPv6.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/services
IPv4, IPv6
Subnetting
TCP, UDP, ICMP

109.2 Persistent network configuration

Description: Candidates should be able to manage the persistent network configuration of a Linux host.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Understand basic TCP/IP host configuration.
Configure ethernet and wi-fi network using NetworkManager.
Awareness of systemd-networkd.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/hostname
/etc/hosts
/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
nmcli
hostnamectl
ifup
ifdown

109.3 Basic network troubleshooting

Description: Candidates should be able to troubleshoot networking issues on client hosts.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Manually configure network interfaces, including viewing and changing the configuration of network interfaces using iproute2.
Manually configure routing, including viewing and changing routing tables and setting the default route using iproute2.
Debug problems associated with the network configuration.
Awareness of legacy net-tools commands.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
ip
hostname
ss
ping
ping6
traceroute
traceroute6
tracepath
tracepath6
netcat
ifconfig
netstat
route

109.4 Configure client side DNS

Description: Candidates should be able to configure DNS on a client host.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Query remote DNS servers.
Configure local name resolution and use remote DNS servers.
Modify the order in which name resolution is done.
Debug errors related to name resolution.
Awareness of systemd-resolved.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/hosts
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/nsswitch.conf
host
dig
getent

Topic 110: Security

 

110.1 Perform security administration tasks

Description: Candidates should know how to review system configuration to ensure host security in accordance with local security policies.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Audit a system to find files with the suid/sgid bit set.
Set or change user passwords and password aging information.
Being able to use nmap and netstat to discover open ports on a system.
Set up limits on user logins, processes and memory usage.
Determine which users have logged in to the system or are currently logged in.
Basic sudo configuration and usage.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
find
passwd
fuser
lsof
nmap
chage
netstat
sudo
/etc/sudoers
su
usermod
ulimit
who, w, last

110.2 Setup host security

Description: Candidates should know how to set up a basic level of host security.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Awareness of shadow passwords and how they work.
Turn off network services not in use.
Understand the role of TCP wrappers.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/nologin
/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/xinetd.d/
/etc/xinetd.conf
systemd.socket
/etc/inittab
/etc/init.d/
/etc/hosts.allow
/etc/hosts.deny

110.3 Securing data with encryption

Description: The candidate should be able to use public key techniques to secure data and communication.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Perform basic OpenSSH 2 client configuration and usage.
Understand the role of OpenSSH 2 server host keys.
Perform basic GnuPG configuration, usage and revocation.
Use GPG to encrypt, decrypt, sign and verify files.
Understand SSH port tunnels (including X11 tunnels).
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
ssh
ssh-keygen
ssh-agent
ssh-add
~/.ssh/id_rsa and id_rsa.pub
~/.ssh/id_dsa and id_dsa.pub
~/.ssh/id_ecdsa and id_ecdsa.pub
~/.ssh/id_ed25519 and id_ed25519.pub
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key and ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key and ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_ecdsa_key and ssh_host_ecdsa_key.pub
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_ed25519_key and ssh_host_ed25519_key.pub
~/.ssh/authorized_keys
ssh_known_hosts
gpg
gpg-agent
~/.gnupg/
Future Change Considerations
Future changes to the objective will/may include:
Remove ifup/ifdown and legacy net-tools command
Remove TCP wrappers

Topic 200: Capacity Planning

200.1 Measure and Troubleshoot Resource Usage

Description: Candidates should be able to measure hardware resource and network bandwidth, identify and troubleshoot resource problems.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Measure CPU usage
Measure memory usage
Measure disk I/O
Measure network I/O
Measure firewalling and routing throughput
Map client bandwidth usage
Match / correlate system symptoms with likely problems
Estimate throughput and identify bottlenecks in a system including networking
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
iostat
netstat
w
top
sar
processes blocked on I/O
blocks out
vmstat
pstree, ps
Isof
uptime
swap
blocks in

200.2 Predict Future Resource Needs

Description: Candidates should be able to monitor resource usage to predict future resource needs.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Use monitoring and measurement tools to monitor IT infrastructure usage.
Predict capacity break point of a configuration
Observe growth rate of capacity usage
Graph the trend of capacity usage
Awareness of monitoring solutions such as Icinga2, Nagios, collectd, MRTG and Cacti
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
diagnose
predict growth
resource exhaustion

Topic 201: Linux Kernel

201.1 Kernel Components

Description: Candidates should be able to utilize kernel components that are necessary to specific hardware, hardware drivers, system resources and requirements. This objective includes implementing different types of kernel images, identifying stable and development kernels and patches, as well as using kernel modules.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Kernel 2.6.x, 3.x and 4.x documentation
Terms and Utilities:
/usr/src/linux/
/usr/src/linux/Documentation/
zImage
bzImage
xz compression

201.2 Compiling a kernel

Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure a kernel to include or disable specific features of the Linux kernel as necessary. This objective includes compiling and recompiling the Linux kernel as needed, updating and noting changes in a new kernel, creating an initrd image and installing new kernels.
Key Knowledge Areas:
/usr/src/linux/
Kernel Makefiles
Kernel 2.6.x/3.x make targets
Customize the current kernel configuration.
Build a new kernel and appropriate kernel modules.
Install a new kernel and any modules.
Ensure that the boot manager can locate the new kernel and associated files.
Module configuration files
Use DKMS to compile kernel modules.
Awareness of dracut
Terms and Utilities:
mkinitrd
mkinitramfs
make
make targets (all, config, xconfig, menuconfig, gconfig, oldconfig, mrproper, zImage, bzImage, modules, modules_install, rpm-pkg, binrpm-pkg, deb-pkg)
gzip
bzip2
module tools
/usr/src/linux/.config
/lib/modules/kernel-version/
depmod
dkms

201.3 Kernel runtime management and troubleshooting

Description: Candidates should be able to manage and/or query a 2.6.x, 3.x or 4.x kernel and its loadable modules. Candidates should be able to identify and correct common boot and run time issues. Candidates should understand device detection and management using udev. This objective includes troubleshooting udev rules.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Use command-line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules
Manually load and unload kernel modules
Determine when modules can be unloaded
Determine what parameters a module accepts
Configure the system to load modules by names other than their file name.
/proc filesystem
Content of /, /boot/ , and /lib/modules/
Tools and utilities to analyze information about the available hardware
udev rules
Terms and Utilities:
/lib/modules/kernel-version/modules.dep
module configuration files in /etc/
/proc/sys/kernel/
/sbin/depmod
/sbin/rmmod
/sbin/modinfo
/bin/dmesg
/sbin/lspci
/usr/bin/lsdev
/sbin/lsmod
/sbin/modprobe
/sbin/insmod
/bin/uname
/usr/bin/lsusb
/etc/sysctl.conf, /etc/sysctl.d/
/sbin/sysctl
udevmonitor
udevadm monitor
/etc/udev/

Topic 202: System Startup

202.1 Customizing SysV-init system startup

Description: Candidates should be able to query and modify the behaviour of system services at various targets / run levels. A thorough understanding of the systemd, SysV Init and the Linux boot process is required. This objective includes interacting with systemd targets and SysV init run levels.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Systemd
SysV init
Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB)
Terms and Utilities:
/usr/lib/systemd/
/etc/systemd/
/run/systemd/
systemctl
systemd-delta
/etc/inittab
/etc/init.d/
/etc/rc.d/
chkconfig
update-rc.d
init and telinit

202.2 System Recovery

Description: Candidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and during recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init-related kernel options. Candidates should be able to determine the cause of errors in loading and usage of bootloaders. GRUB version 2 and GRUB Legacy are the bootloaders of interest. Both BIOS and UEFI systems are covered.
Key Knowledge Areas:
BIOS and UEFI
NVMe booting
GRUB version 2 and Legacy
grub shell
boot loader start and hand off to kernel
kernel loading
hardware initialisation and setup
daemon/service initialisation and setup
Know the different boot loader install locations on a hard disk or removable device.
Overwrite standard boot loader options and using boot loader shells.
Use systemd rescue and emergency modes.
Terms and Utilities:
mount
fsck
inittab, telinit and init with SysV init
The contents of /boot/, /boot/grub/ and /boot/efi/
EFI System Partition (ESP)
GRUB
grub-install
efibootmgr
UEFI shell
initrd, initramfs
Master boot record
systemctl

202.3 Alternate Bootloaders

Description: Candidates should be aware of other bootloaders and their major features.
Key Knowledge Areas:
SYSLINUX, ISOLINUX, PXELINUX
Understanding of PXE for both BIOS and UEFI
Awareness of systemd-boot and U-Boot
Terms and Utilities:
syslinux
extlinux
isolinux.bin
isolinux.cfg
isohdpfx.bin
efiboot.img
pxelinux.0
pxelinux.cfg/
uefi/shim.efi
uefi/grubx64.efi

Topic 203: Filesystem and Devices

203.1 Operating the Linux filesystem

Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types.
Key Knowledge Areas:
The concept of the fstab configuration
Tools and utilities for handling swap partitions and files
Use of UUIDs for identifying and mounting file systems
Understanding of systemd mount units
Terms and Utilities:
/etc/fstab
/etc/mtab
/proc/mounts
mount and umount
blkid
sync
swapon
swapoff

203.2 Maintaining a Linux filesystem​

Description: Candidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating standard filesystems and monitoring SMART devices.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Tools and utilities to manipulate and ext2, ext3 and ext4
Tools and utilities to perform basic Btrfs operations, including subvolumes and snapshots
Tools and utilities to manipulate XFS
Awareness of ZFS
Terms and Utilities:
mkfs (mkfs.*)
mkswap
fsck (fsck.*)
tune2fs, dumpe2fs and debugfs
btrfs, btrfs-convert
xfs_info, xfs_check, xfs_repair, xfsdump and xfsrestore
smartd, smartctl

203.3 Creating and configuring filesystem options

Description: Candidates should be able to configure automount filesystems using AutoFS. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs and a basic feature knowledge of encrypted filesystems.
Key Knowledge Areas:
autofs configuration files
Understanding of automount units
UDF and ISO9660 tools and utilities
Awareness of other CD-ROM filesystems (HFS)
Awareness of CD-ROM filesystem extensions (Joliet, Rock Ridge, El Torito)
Basic feature knowledge of data encryption (dm-crypt / LUKS)
Terms and Utilities:
/etc/auto.master
/etc/auto.[dir]
mkisofs
cryptsetup

Topic 204: Advanced Storage Device Administration

204.1 Configuring RAID

Description: Candidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes using and configuring RAID 0, 1 and 5.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Software raid configuration files and utilities
Terms and Utilities:
mdadm.conf
mdadm
/proc/mdstat
partition type 0xFD

204.2 Adjusting Storage Device Access

Description: Candidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various drives. This objective includes software tools to view & modify hard disk settings including iSCSI devices.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Tools and utilities to configure DMA for IDE devices including ATAPI and SATA
Tools and utilities to configure Solid State Drives including AHCI and NVMe
Tools and utilities to manipulate or analyse system resources (e.g. interrupts)
Awareness of sdparm command and its uses
Tools and utilities for iSCSI
Awareness of SAN, including relevant protocols (AoE, FCoE)
Terms and Utilities:
hdparm, sdparm
nvme
tune2fs
fstrim
sysctl
/dev/hd*, /dev/sd*, /dev/nvme*
iscsiadm, scsi_id, iscsid and iscsid.conf
WWID, WWN, LUN numbers

204.3 Logical Volume Manager

Description: Candidates should be able to create and remove logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes. This objective includes snapshots and resizing logical volumes.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Tools in the LVM suite
Resizing, renaming, creating, and removing logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes
Creating and maintaining snapshots
Activating volume groups
Terms and Utilities:
/sbin/pv*
/sbin/lv*
/sbin/vg*
mount
/dev/mapper/
lvm.conf

Topic 205: Network Configuration

205.1 Basic networking configuration

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a network device to be able to connect to a local, wired or wireless, and a wide-area network. This objective includes being able to communicate between various subnets within a single network including both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
Configuring basic access to wireless networks
Terms and Utilities:
ip
ifconfig
route
arp
iw
iwconfig
iwlist

205.2 Advanced Network Configuration and Troubleshooting

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a network device to implement various network authentication schemes. This objective includes configuring a multi-homed network device and resolving communication problems.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Utilities to manipulate routing tables
Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
Utilities to analyze the status of the network devices
Utilities to monitor and analyze the TCP/IP traffic
Terms and Utilities:
ip
ifconfig
route
arp
ss
netstat
lsof
ping, ping6
nc
tcpdump
nmap

205.3 Troubleshooting Network Issues

Description: Candidates should be able to identify and correct common network setup issues, to include knowledge of locations for basic configuration files and commands.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Location and content of access restriction files
Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
Utilities to manage routing tables
Utilities to list network states.
Utilities to gain information about the network configuration
Methods of information about the recognized and used hardware devices
System initialization files and their contents (SysV init process)
Awareness of NetworkManager and its impact on network configuration
Terms and Utilities:
ip
ifconfig
route
ss
netstat
/etc/network/, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
ping, ping6
traceroute, traceroute6
mtr
hostname
System log files such as /var/log/syslog, /var/log/messages and the systemd journal
dmesg
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/hosts
/etc/hostname, /etc/HOSTNAME
/etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny

Topic 206: System Maintenance

206.1 Make and install programs from source

Description: Candidates should be able to build and install an executable program from source. This objective includes being able to unpack a file of sources.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Unpack source code using common compression and archive utilities
Understand basics of invoking make to compile programs
Apply parameters to a configure script
Know where sources are stored by default
Terms and Utilities:
/usr/src/
gunzip
gzip
bzip2
xz
tar
configure
make
uname
install
patch

206.2 Backup operations

Description: Candidates should be able to use system tools to back up important system data.
Key Knowledge Areas:
Knowledge about directories that have to be include in backups
Awareness of network backup solutions such as Amanda, Bacula, Bareos and BackupPC
Knowledge of the benefits and drawbacks of tapes, CDR, disk or other backup media
Perform partial and manual backups.
Verify the integrity of backup files.
Partially or fully restore backups.
Terms and Utilities:
/bin/sh
dd
tar
/dev/st* and /dev/nst*
mt
rsync

206.3 Notify users on system-related issues

Weight: 1
Description: Candidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system.
Key Knowledge Areas:
​Automate communication with users through logon messages
Inform active users of system maintenance
Terms and Utilities:
/etc/issue
/etc/issue.net
/etc/motd
wall
/sbin/shutdown
systemctl
دوره آموزشی لینوکس
آکادمی ویرا
دوره ها
80%
رضایت دانشجویان
90%
لابراتوار تخصصی و تجهیزات
80%
با ما در تماس باشید
نظرات و پیشنهادات خود را برای ما ارسال نمایید
تماس با راهکارهای امن ویرا

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